Web Content Display Web Content Display

Frequently asked questions regarding copyright laws

Why does the portal Slovakiana not display all the works? 

This is mainly due to legal regulations, please find the detailed explanation here.

Why do I have free access to certain pieces, while I need to pre-pay a fixed tariff for others? 

The public access applies only to those pieces, whose copyright protection has already expired, thus making the work free; or the works whose author or license-owner has signed a license contract enabling said piece to be publically available. Members of public may pre-pay a fixed tariff in specific cases, e.g. for viewing commercially inaccessible pieces, whose copyright protection is still valid in cases where the copyright laws permit doing so under certain conditions. A commercially inaccessible piece is a verbal piece of art, published in written form, namely a book, a newspaper or a magazine, where a copy cannot be obtained via retaliative transfer of the copyright (the purchase of a used thing notwithstanding). This piece is stored in a library, an archive or a museum and is quoted on the list of commercially inaccessible works kept by the Slovak national library. Since the copyright protection is not expired as yet, it is necessary to pay a tariff for its viewing, which serves among other things as a reward of the author or the copyright owner for the utilisation of their work. The possibility of setting up this service on the Slovakiana portal requires the signing of a license agreement between the organisational administration of LITA and the institution, which holds said piece in their collection.

When I purchase a piece via the download service, does it become my property to do with as I please? May I spread it further? 

You may not. You must differenciate between ownership and intellectual property. When purchasing a work of art, you own the physical thing, the intellectual property and the protection thereof remain intact. When you purchase a commercially inaccessible piece via our download service, you may use it for your own need, but not distribute it further.

Why are some parts of the cultural objects censored (blackened out)? 

In case of blackening out segments, this is usually connected with the safe-guarding of personal data, which has forced us to temporarily blacken out certain parts of the cultural objects, with regards to our legal duties.

How can I find out the nature of a cultural object I am dealing with, e.g. if it is copyright protected or not? 

For this purpose, we use the information about the legal status, shown next to the individual cultural objects.


Search possibilities

How does the search work? 

There are millions of cultural objects on Slovakiana and more will be added in the future. The search is thus the most common way of accessing cultural objects. The search functionality accordingly provides many mutually combinable methods of searching for objects.

Search structure
The search comprises two main elements: the search facet and the search bar.

The search facet provides a filtering option: only these cultural objects will be returned which match the criteria in the facet (e. g. objects from SNG and the years 1900 – 1950). If the user is searching for other entities as well (blogs, articles…), the search facet filter is only applied to cultural objects.

Search bar: the user enters a query for the search.

The basic search logic
The entities included in the search are cultural objects, authorities, blogs, virtual excursions, discussions and articles on the portal. If a certain text within an entity matches the search query, the appropriate entity is included in the search results.

The following expressions can be used in the search query:
- Words and phrases
- Substitute characters
- Regular expressions
- Operators

Search rules
Words and phrases are the basic units of the search query. A word can be entered directly into the search bar, without quotes, e. g. Bodíky, Predjarie, Štúr. In this case, the inflected forms of the entered words will be included in the search results. One or more words can be enclosed in quotes, e. g. "Predjarie v Bodíkoch" – this is a phrase. In this case only the exact wording will be included in the search results – only words in the entered form and order.
It is possible to enter several words and phrases into the search bar. Such cases are resolved in the following manner: - If the entered words / phrases are separated by spaces, only texts containing all words / phrases will be included in the search results; however, the order does not have to be preserved. This is the equivalent of logical <and>.
- If the entered words / phrases are separated by commas, texts containing at least one of the words / phrases will be included in the search results. This is the equivalent of logical <or>.
- If some of the entered words / phrases are separated by spaces and some by commas, the query is resolved in the same way as when the operators <and> and <or> are used (explained below).

Substitute characters can be used in a word or a phrase. There are two of them:
- A star (*) replaces 0, 1 or more characters. For example, if auto* is entered, the expressions auto, automobil, autobus, autorita, autobusár are included in the search results. If the star is inside a word, the inflected forms of all the substituted expressions are included in the search results as well. Thus, in the previous example, the expressions aute, auta, autá will be included in the search results. If the star is inside a phrase ("auto*"), only the basic forms of all the substituted expressions will be included in the search results – the expressions autorite, autobusom will be included, but the expressions aute, auta and autá will not.
- A question mark (?) replaces exactly one character. E. g. If ma?ka is entered, the expressions matka, mačka and majka will be included in the search results. Regarding inflection, the rule is the same as with star: if the question mark is inside a word, the inflected expressions will be included in the search results (mačke, matky); if it is inside a phrase, they will not.

Regular expressions are similar to substitute characters but specify the set of characters they can replace. When using regular expressions, the expression <wildcard> has to be used and the searched for expression has to be placed in quotes. There are two regular expressions:
- Character set – e. g. if the user enters <wildcard> "l[eoa]s", the expressions les, los and las will be included in the search results.
- Character range – e. g. if the user enters <wildcard> "l[a - c]s", the expressions las, lbs and lcs will be included in the search results.
- When using regular expressions, the inflected forms are included in the search results as well.

Operators either join two words / phrases or they apply only to one word / phrase. The following operators exist:
- <or> – is inserted between words / phrases and couples them; in that case all texts containing at least one of the coupled words / phrases match the search query. It is an equivalent of separating words / phrases by comma.
- <and> – is inserted between words / phrases and couples them; in that case only texts containing both of the coupled words / phrases match the search query. The order of the words / phrases is irrelevant. It is an equivalent of separating words / phrases by space.
- <not> – is inserted before a word / phrase; in that case all texts not containing the word / phrase match the search query.
- <near/n> – is inserted between words / phrases; it defines the maximum distance between words / phrases. "n" is a parameter to be substituted by a number, e. g. if the user enters Slovenská galéria, Slovenská galéria (distance 1) and Slovenská národná galéria (distance 2) both match the query, but Slovenská veľká národná galéria (distance 3) does not.
- <typo> – is inserted before a word / phrase; in that case, expressions similar in spelling will be included in the search results, thus typing errors or spelling inconsistencies can be bypassed. E. g. in the case of <typo> Mednansky, texts with Mednyánszky will be included in the search results as well.
- If several operators are used, they are resolved in the following order: <not>, <and>, <or>. E. g. the query štúr <or> francisci <and> <not> hurban will be resolved as štúr <or> (francisci <and> <not> hurban). Two <not> operators neutralize each other.

It is possible to combine most search methods (e. g. <wildcard> "Veče[rsg]" <and> <not> <typo> Mednansky).
The search is never case-sensitive.